La nuova “ rivoluzione industriale 4.0″, che si basa sulla disoccupazione tecnologica

con 67 commenti

 

Una nuova rivoluzione, così profetizzava nel 1930 John Maynard Keynes ( 1883-1946). Una rivoluzione che si basa sulla disoccupazione tecnologica. 

 

 

una disoccupazione causata dalla scoperta di strumenti atti a economizzare l’uso di manodopera e dalla contemporanea incapacità di tenerne il passo trovando altri utilizzi per la manodopera in esubero”.

 

Domenico De Masi, docente di Sociologia del lavoro alla Sapienza di Roma, sostiene :” il sistema attuale non è sostenibile. La nuova ondata della robotica distruggerà il triplo del lavoro che hanno distrutto le precedenti ondate di innovazione».
Secondo un report della Bank of America si stima che siano in   pericolo tra i 35 e il 47% dei posti di lavoro, che potrebbero a breve venir occupati da robot.
La Cina , per abbassare il costo del lavoro, a partire dal 2013 ha abbracciato l’automazione.Il risultato e che oggi il “ paese del dragone” è lo stato con la maggior presenza di robot-lavoratori al mondo.Questi ” nuovi lavoratori”,daranno alla Cina, un vantaggio competitivo rispetto ai paesi dove il costo del lavoro è ancora molto basso.

Il tema centrale del World Economic Forum  e come questa nuova “ rivoluzione” industriale 4.0. sia  destinata a cambiare per sempre la società e l’economia mondiale. Altro tema affrontato e di come i progressi tecnologici potrebbero ridurre le opportunità per i lavoratori non qualificati.
 
Sono tre le date che hanno rivoluzionato il mondo industriale:
1784 nasce la macchina a vapore, il simbolo della prima rivoluzione industriale:
1870 fanno il loro debutto nel panorama mondiale il petrolio e le produzioni di massa
1970 la nascita dell’informatica ci ha proiettati dritti nella terza rivoluzione industriale.
I protagonisti della quarta rivoluzione industriale saranno : la robotica, la nanotecnologia, la stampa 3D e la biotecnologia.

Secondo il  Financial Times, entro dieci o vent’anni, cinque settori economici saranno schiantati dalla tecnologia:
 
Le agenzie di viaggio

Negli Stati Uniti il loro numero si è quasi dimezzato dal 1990 a oggi. Secondo le previsioni del governo diminuiranno di un altro 12% entro il 2024. La rivoluzione ha travolto sia le agenzie indipendenti che i grandi tour operator.
«Dovremo sempre meno vendere viaggi e vacanze e sempre più possedere e gestire alberghi e navi da crociera», questa è la  NUOVA visione di un Top Manager di un colosso del settore
 
I produttori di componenti industriali

Secondo uno studio l’impatto delle stampati 3D sarebbe devastante per i produttori di componenti industriali.Questi  rischierebbero di perdere il 60% del mercato entro i prossimi dieci anni.
Abbassando il costo dei prototipi e riducendo la produzione iniziale in piccoli volumi di nuovi prodotti, la produzione su larga scala diventerà praticabile proprio grazie all’utilizzo dei robot.
Il rischio è che questa rivoluzione industriale travolga l’economia del mondo e soprattutto l’organizzazione del lavoro.
Questa nuova tendenza, ” dall’uomo al robot ” porterà  la perdita di 5 milioni di posti di lavoro.
 
Le officine auto

La fine dei motori a combustibile si sta avvicinando, facendo crollare il mercato tradizionale di circa il 90% a favore del “mercato elettrico”.

L’età della pietra si è conclusa non per mancanza di pietre. L’era del petrolio finirà, ma non per una mancanza di petrolio “  Ahmed Zaki Yamani (Ministro Risorse minerarie – Arabia Saudita)

Nel finire del 2016 arriva la conferma ufficiale della Volkswagen, il marchio tedesco taglierà 23.000 posti di lavoro in Germania, su 120.000. La più grande riduzione del personale nella storia del marchio.
Il marchio Volkswagen investe nel futuro puntando sulle nuove tecnologie: elettromobilità, digitalizzazione e connettività.
Nel complesso, investirà 3,5 miliardi di euro “nella trasformazione dell’azienda”.
Creando 9.000 nuovi posti di lavoro nel settore delle auto elettriche.

Nel prossimo futuro, le auto officine, dovranno essere frequentate da: esperti di computer, Internet, assistenza a distanza, ecc.
Il loro futuro è legato a quello delle automobili di domani.

 

Secondo Giuliano Soncini di Bosch :
 

“Sempre più forte sarà il legame tra le case auto e i loro acquirenti di autoveicoli. Un legame forte che si evidenzia nell’allungarsi dei tempi di garanzia sui veicoli stessi.Per questo il potere delle officine autorizzate sarà sempre più marcato.” Viceversa si confermerà il trend di riduzione delle officine libere presenti sul territorio nazionale.Saranno infatti solo le officine che sapranno modernizzarsi, attrezzarsi adeguatamente e che sapranno formare i loro dipendenti che avranno un futuro anche nei prossimi 10 anni.”

I venditori di polizze Rc

La guida autonoma rappresenta una delle grandi rivoluzioni che interesseranno li mondo degli spostamenti in automobile.

Le tecnologie stanno cambiando le auto nel profondo e cambieranno i comportamenti degli automobilisti. Muteranno anche le dinamiche stradali e il mondo dell’assicurazione auto dovrà necessariamente  cambiare.Il tempo del solo tagliando da tenere nel cruscotto della macchina sta per finire.

 “ Se spostiamo l’orizzonte temporale a 5-10 anni vediamo la macchina che guida da sola. Il mondo sta cambiando e anche le assicurazioni dovranno adeguarsi, cambiando innanzitutto cultura, intesa come modo di porsi con il consumatore”.

Intervistato dalla CNBC, Warren Buffett , ha dichiarato la “ disruption” del settore.
L’oracolo di Obama afferma che considerando , gli enormi investimenti in termini di cervelli e di denaro, il processo di cambiamento è inevitabile. La rivoluzione del settore è in atto.

I consulenti finanziari.

Sarà sempre più affidata a siti web che gestiscono i portafogli dei clienti sulla base di algoritmi. Così una miriade di intermediari strapagati perderanno la loro ragion d’essere.

Da qui al 2020 nel mondo si perderanno 7,1 milioni di posti di lavoro. Come contrappeso nasceranno 2,1 milioni di posti di lavoro più specializzati.I 2 milioni circa di posti di lavoro in più saranno concentrati in settori come l’informatica, la matematica, l’architettura e l’ingegneria.
 
La quarta rivoluzione industriale, non ha ancora una data di inizio. Quella data verrà ricordata, come il giorno in cui  “le macchine sostituiranno gli esseri umani” .

 

 

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